Woodland Damage: Recognition of Cause(2)

key:
effects of damage type to woodland
leaf no effect
leaf no significant losses
leaf can cause significant economic loss but woodland can survive
leaf can cause complete loss of woodland

Recognising causes of damage (continued)

Saplings

No Question Y/N Go to
13 Has bark been removed? Y:
N:
go14
go19
14 Are teeth marks visible on close inspection? Y:
N:
go15
go18
15 Size of teeth marks :
1-2 mm

govoles
1.5mm gosquirrels
3-4 mm gorabbits
more than 4 mm Y: go16
16 Which direction do teeth marks run?
Vertically

Y:
 

godeer
 
Diagonally Y: go17
17 What height does damage extend to?
1.5mm

gosheep/goats
2mm gocattle/horses
2.5mm gohorses
18 Has bark been rubbed off ?
between 0 and 0.5m?
above 1m?
 
goroe deer (likely)
godeer
19 Have lower branches been browsed? Y: go20
20 Height to which branches are browsed
0.6m
1.1m
1.5m
1.8m
2m
2.5m
 
gorabbits
goroe
gogoats/sheep
gored/sika/fallow
gocattle/horses
gohorses

Mature

No Question Y/N Go to
21 Has bark been removed? Y:
N:
go22
go27
22 Are teeth marks visible on close inspection? Y:
N:
go23
go26
23 Size of teeth marks :
1.5 mm
 
gosquirrels
3-4 mm   gorabbits
Size of teeth marks more than 4mm Y: go24
24 Which direction do teeth marks run?
Vertically
Diagonally

Y:
Y:

godeer(refer below)
go25
25 What height does damage extend to?

1.5mm
2mm
2.5mm

 

gosheep/goats
gocattle/horses
gohorses

26 Has bark been rubbed off ?

between 0 and 0.5m?

 

goroe deer (likely)

  above 1m?   godeer species
27 Have lower branches been browsed? Y: go28
28 Height to which branches are browsed
0.6m
1.1m
1.5m
1.8m
2m
2.5m
 
gorabbits
goroe
gogoats/sheep
gored/sika/fallow
gocattle/horses
gohorses
29 Is ground heavily poached? Y: gocattle (likely)

Birds Birds Signs:Droppings, local bird-expert knowledge. Damage description: May shear off top of shoots and pick out buds. Leader damage by nesting birds e.g. pigeons in conifer plantations.

leaf leaf leaf

 


Sheep Signs: Wool attached to coarse vegetation. Tracks are easily distinguished from deer tracks. Damage description: Browses seedlings and saplings. Cut end is usually flat across stem and a ragged end left. Bark can be stripped of stems.

leaf leaf leaf


Cattle, Horse, Goat Signs: footprints, presence of dung. The smell of goats usually confirms their presence. Damage description: Bark stripping and browsing can be severe to all stages of growth. Damage can appear at higher levels as goats can and do climb. When cattle are present, soft ground may be poached causing waterlogging of roots as well as root damage.

leaf leaf leaf


Roe Signs: Tracks distinguishable from other deer. Droppings are cylindrical with rounded ends. Damage description: Bark frayed from stems and branches by buck will leave a smooth white wound with shreds of bark hanging from it and is often accompanied by a v shaped scrape on the ground at the base of the tree. Browsing damage similar to sheep.

leaf leaf leaf


Fallow, Sika & Red Signs: Tracks of Red similar to Sika and Fallow deer. Red use wallows around the autumn rut. Damage description: Can strip bark up to 3m above the ground from saplings up to mature trees. Browsing damage similar to sheep. Fraying from cleaning antlers can cause significant damage to saplings.
Mature trees can also be damaged by rubbing antlers.Can cause poaching in soft ground when numbers are high. ‘Bole scoring’ damage (associated with Sika) is deep scoring or gouging of bark by antlers resulting in resin bleeding.

leaf leaf leaf
fallow
leaf leaf leaf sika, red

Key to symbols

  • This symbol highlights a legal requirement. It is an offence not to comply.
  • This symbol highlights an action or task required in order to safeguard public safety, food safety and animal welfare.  
  • This symbol highlights an action or task required in order to carry out the task effectively.

see further key to these symbols